From Eugenics to Assassination
by Anton Chaitkin
A behavior control research project was begun in the 1950s, coordinated by the British psychological warfare unit called the Tavistock Institute, with the Scottish Rite Masons, the Central Intelligence Agency, and other British, U.S., Canadian, and United Nations agencies. The project became famous in the 1970s under a CIA code name, "MK-Ultra.'' Its notoriety for brainwashing by drugs, hypnosis, electroshock, and other tortures caused many books to be written about the project, and the U.S. Senate conducted hearings which exposed many of its abusive features.
President Gerald Ford appointed a commission headed by Vice President Nelson Rockefeller, to correct the CIA's misconduct. There was a widespread anti-establishment view at the time, that here was the fox appointed to guard the hen house. The intelligence agencies offered a public rationale for the project: the need to counteract and compete with the mind-control capabilities of the communists. This was largely based on the fact that U.S. personnel held prisoner by the enemy in the Korean War had signed false confessions of crimes, and some had defected to North Korea, the apparent result of brainwashing.
The Manchurian Candidate, a 1959 book which was made into a popular movie in 1962, reflected this rationale. It told the story of a communist plot to use a U.S. soldier brainwashed in Manchuria as a zombie-assassin, to kill the leading U.S. presidential candidate. A central theme of MK-Ultra was to attempt to control the human mind in a similar way.
Threatened and accomplished assassination of political leaders has become increasingly frequent in public life since the 1960s. Just since the 1992 election campaign, for example, President Bill Clinton has been the target of at least 15 assassination threats. Many of these would-be killers, and many of the assassins of past years, had been in destructive psychiatric programs, or were members of psychiatrically manipulated cults. The present threats are the more meaningful, in the context of the British-led Whitewater scandal directed against the presidency. It is long past time for a thorough public inquiry into the assassination epidemic, whereby its relationship to the official project to create assassins would be fully explored.
A great obstacle to clear thinking in this area has been the assumption that the U.S. government would not sponsor programs for the murder of American leaders. This logical assumption misses the point, that the overall project, including "MK-Ultra,'' has been foreign-sponsored and anti-American in its purposes. We shall outline here the British background of this deeply criminal enterprise, with its roots in the political and psychiatric movement called eugenics.
1909-13: the buildup to World War I John D. Rockefeller created the family-run Rockefeller Foundation, in parallel with the birth of the British-inspired Federal Reserve, the Internal Revenue Service, and the Federal Bureau of Investigation. In 1909-13 and subsequent years, Rockefeller transferred blocs of the family-owned Standard Oil Co. worth more than $300 million to the account of the foundation under its trustees who were family members, and their employees. Thus was established a global instrument for radical social change, using American money and British strategy.
John D. Rockefeller had begun his oil business in the 1860s with British capital. The family's relationship to the British Empire a half-century later was centered in the person of John D.'s brother William Rockefeller, the president of Standard Oil of New York (later Mobil) and the founder of National City Bank (later Citibank). In 1911, brother William employed, in a private capacity through his elite social club, a high-ranking British secret intelligence service officer named Claude Dansey. As the United States prepared to ally itself in World War I with its old enemy Britain, Dansey personally reorganized the U.S. Army intelligence service into an adjunct of the British secret service. Dansey's loyal U.S. follower, Gen. Marlborough Churchill (a distant relative of Britain's Winston Churchill) soon became director of U.S. military intelligence. After World War I, General Churchill headed up the "Black Chamber,'' a New York-based espionage group serving the State Department, the U.S. Army, and private New York financiers loyal to Great Britain. This same General Churchill would soon launch a medical research organization, the Macy Foundation, for the Rockefellers and British intelligence.
1920s: the pre-Hitler era in Germany The Rockefeller Foundation poured money into the occupied German republic for a medical specialty known as "psychiatric genetics." This field applied to psychiatry the concepts of eugenics (otherwise known as race purification, race hygiene, or race betterment) developed in London's Galton Laboratory and its offshoot Eugenics Societies in England and America. The Rockefeller Foundation created, and foundation executives thenceforth continuously directed, the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Psychiatry in Munich (before Rockefeller sponsorship it was known as the Kraepelin Institute), and the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Anthropology, Eugenics, and Human Heredity. The Rockefellers' chief in both these institutions was the fascist Swiss psychiatrist Ernst Rudin, assisted by his proteges, Rockefeller functionaries Otmar Freiherr von Verschuer and Franz J. Kallmann. A British medical historian friendly to the Rockefellers recently explained how the family was introduced into this field in Germany : The foundation's "German centers combined the search for organic signs of mental illness with eugenic projects.... The [Kraepelin] institute had initially been endowed with 11 million marks, contributed by Gustav Krupp von Bohlen und Halbach [head of the Krupp steel and arms family] and James Loeb [Paul Warburg's brother-in-law], an expatriate American of the Kuhn- Loeb banking family. Loeb mobilized his American-Jewish friends to support the institute,'' and they invited the foundation to reorganize and expand the Munich enterprise. Loeb also continued financing the institute.
Loeb's relatives, the Warburgs, owners of Kuhn Loeb bank, were the intimate banking partners of William Rockefeller. Together with him they had set up the Harriman family in big business, using capital supplied by the British royal family's personal banker, Sir Ernst Cassell. The three families, Rockefeller, Warburg, and Harriman, together with British Crown agencies, jointly sponsored much of the social engineering enterprise we shall describe here. The Rockefeller Foundation made an initial grant of $2.5 million in 1925 to the Psychiatric Institute in Munich, gave it $325,000 for a new building in 1928, and continuously sponsored the institute and its Nazi chief Rudin through the Hitler era. The foundation paid for a 1930-35 anthropological survey of the "eugenically worthwhile population'' by Nazi eugenicists Rudin, Verschuer, Eugen Fischer, and others.
1930: a New Age in psychiatry Rockefeller family psychologists and race purification experts created a medical research financing conduit, the Josiah Macy, Jr. Foundation, directed by former Black Chamber and military intelligence chief Gen. Marlborough Churchill. The Macy group would manage London's most advanced experiments in mind-control and social engineering.
1932: Rudin heads Eugenics Federation The British-led eugenics movement met at the American Museum of Natural History in New York City, and designated the Rockefellers' Dr. Ernst Rudin as the president of the worldwide Eugenics Federation. The eugenics movement at the time called for the killing or sterilization of people whose heredity made them a public burden or a national scapegoat.
Mid-1930s: Nazi eugenics in practice Adolf Hitler was given Germany's chancellorship in 1933, and was soon absolute dictator. Montagu Norman, the occultist governor of the Bank of England, propped up Hitler's credit, arranged the armament of Nazi Germany, and guided the strategies of Hitler's powerful supporters--the Rockefellers, Warburgs, and Harrimans. Only a few months after the meeting at the American Museum of Natural History, the Rockefeller-Rudin apparatus became a section of the Nazi state. The regime appointed Rudin head of the Racial Hygiene Society. Rudin and his staff, as part of the Task Force of Heredity Experts chaired by SS chief Heinrich Himmler, drew up the sterilization law. Described as an American model law, it was adopted in July 1933 and proudly printed in the September 1933 "Eugenical News" (U.S.A.), with Hitler's signature. The Rockefeller group drew up other race laws, based, as was the sterilization law, on existing statutes from the Commonwealth of Virginia. Otmar Verschuer and his assistant Dr. Josef Mengele together wrote reports for special courts which enforced Rudin's racial purity law against the illegal cohabitation of Aryans and non-Aryans. The "T4'' unit of the Hitler Chancery, based on psychiatrists led by Rudin and his staff, cooperated in creating propaganda films to sell mercy-killing (euthanasia) to German citizens. The public reacted antagonistically: Hitler had to withdraw a tear-jerker right-to-die film from the movie theaters. The proper groundwork had not yet been laid.
1934: The Freemasons study madness The Scottish Rite of Freemasonry joined the Rockefellers in sponsoring psychiatric genetics beginning in 1934, under the rubric of research into dementia praecox (schizophrenia). The highest level of U.S. masonry, the Scottish Rite was the instrument through which the British Crown had reestablished the loyalty of American masons after the American Revolution. The northern section of the Rite had rallied the Copperheads against Abraham Lincoln's Civil War efforts, aiding the Rite's southern chief Albert Pike in secession and in other British white supremacy projects, such as the Ku Klux Klan.
For eugenics, the British royal family itself was the Rite's point of reference. The Duke of Connaught, son of Queen Victoria and brother of King Edward VII, had been grand master of the United Grand Lodge of England since 1901. American masonic leaders referred to the duke as "grand master of the Mother Grand Lodge of Masons of the World.'' The son of a German father (Victoria's husband, the Coburg Prince Albert), the Duke of Connaught was deeply involved in German affairs and was a patron of Britain's "New Dark Ages'' ultra-racialist elite group based in South Africa. Late in 1932, negotiations for Hitler's takeover of Germany took place at the home of Joachim von Ribbentrop, who, as a traveling teenager, had been adopted into the household of the Duke of Connaught. Ribbentrop then became the head of Hitler's foreign intelligence service. As Hitler's ambassador to England, Ribbentrop worked in tandem with the leadership of the clique which employed Hitler as a British surrogate to smash up Europe: the masonic grand master duke and his nephew, the openly Nazi Edward VIII; Bank of England Governor Montagu Norman; and Lord Halifax, Neville Chamberlain's foreign minister.
1936-38: Columbia University's chamber of horrors In 1936, the Scottish Rite's Field Representative of Research on Dementia Praecox, Dr. Nolan D.C. Lewis, director of the New York State Psychiatric Institute, reported to the Scottish Rite Northern Supreme Council "on the progress of the fourteen research projects being financed by the Supreme Council.'' Scottish Rite strategist Winfred Overholser, the superintendent of St. Elizabeth's Hospital, a federal mental hospital in Washington D.C., provided overall leadership for the Rite's psychiatric research. Though these projects are shrouded in mystery, one of them with particularly gruesome results has come to light.
The study of hereditary degeneracy was proceeding in the Rockefeller Foundation's German enclaves when it hit a snag. Psychiatrist Franz J. Kallmann, protege of Nazi race science chief Ernst Rudin, was forced to leave his job-- Kallmann was "half-Jewish.'' This was a big blow for Kallmann, who had proved his Nazi credentials at the International Congress for Population Science in Berlin in 1935. At that British-led meeting hosted by Hitler's Interior Ministry, Kallmann had argued for the sterilization of "even the apparently healthy relatives" of schizophrenics, along with the schizophrenics themselves, to securely eliminate all the defective germ plasm. Without missing a step, Kallmann emigrated to America and became director of research in the New York State Psychiatric Institute, attached to Columbia University in Manhattan. The Scottish Rite's Dr. Lewis was the director of the institute. Kallmann simply continued in New York the Nazi propaganda work he had been doing for Rockefeller in Germany. The Scottish Rite of Freemasonry paid Kallmann to conduct a study of over 1, 000 cases of schizophrenia, in order to assert the claim that the mental disorder was inherited.
Kallmann's study was published simultaneously in the United States and Nazi Germany in 1938. In the preface, Kallmann thanked the Scottish Rite and his mentor Rudin. He called schizophrenics a "source of maladjusted crooks ... and the lowest types of criminal offenders. Even the faithful believer in liberty ... would be happier without those.'' He declared sarcastically, "I am reluctant to admit the necessity of different eugenic programs for democratic and fascistic communities.... There are neither biological nor sociological differences between a democratic and a totalitarian schizophrenic.'' Kallmann's scholarly American study was used by the Nazi government's T4 unit as a part of its pretext to begin in 1939 the murder of mental patients and various other "defective'' people, many or most of them children. Lethal gas and lethal injections were used to kill 200-250,000 under this program, in which the staffs for a broader program of mass murder were desensitized and trained.
1939-40: the deal for Auschwitz The German chemical company IG Farben and Rockefeller's Standard Oil of New Jersey were effectively a single firm, merged in hundreds of cartel arrangements. IG Farben was led, up until 1937 by the Warburg family, Rockefeller's partners in banking and in the design of Nazi German eugenics. Following the Nazi invasion of Poland in September 1939, Britain and Germany declared war on each other and World War II began. But later that month, Standard Oil executives flew to the Netherlands on a British Royal Air Force bomber and met with IG Farben executives. Standard Oil pledged to keep the merger with IG Farben going even if the United States entered the war. This was exposed in 1942 by Sen. Harry Truman's investigating committee, and President Franklin Roosevelt took hundreds of legal measures during the war to counter the Standard Oil-IG Farben cartel's supply operation for the enemy war machine. In 1940-41, IG Farben built a gigantic factory at Auschwitz in Poland, to utilize the Standard Oil-IG Farben patents with concentration camp slave labor to make gasoline from coal. The SS guarded the Jewish and other inmates and selected for killing those who were unfit for IG Farben slave labor. Standard-Germany President Emil Helfferich testified after the war that Standard Oil funds helped pay for the SS guards at Auschwitz. On March 26, 1940, six months after the Standard Oil-IG Farben meeting, European Rockefeller Foundation official Daniel O'Brian wrote to the foundation's chief medical officer Alan Gregg that "it would be unfortunate if it was chosen to stop research which has no relation to war issues.'' The "non-war- related'' research continued. The Rockefeller Foundation defends its record by claiming that its funding of Nazi German programs during World War II was limited to psychiatric research.
1943: research in Nazi-occupied Poland In 1943, Otmar Verschuer's assistant Josef Mengele was made medical commandant of Auschwitz. As wartime director of Rockefeller's Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Anthropology, Eugenics, and Human Heredity in Berlin, Verschuer secured funds for Mengele's experiments at Auschwitz from the German Research council. Verschuer wrote a progress report to the Council: "My co-researcher in this research is my assistant, the anthropologist and physician Mengele. He is serving as Hauptsturmfuhrer and camp doctor in the concentration camp Auschwitz.... With the permission of the Reichsfuhrer SS Himmler, anthropological research is being undertaken on the various racial groups in the concentration camps and blood samples will be sent to my laboratory for investigation.'' Mengele prowled the railroad cars coming into Auschwitz, looking for twin children--a favorite research subject of Frankenstein-type psychiatric geneticists. On arrival at Mengele's experimental station, twins filled out "a detailed questionnaire from the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute.'' There were daily drawings of blood for Verschuer's "specific protein'' research. Needles were injected into eyes for work on eye color. There were experimental blood transfusions and experimental infections. Organs and limbs were removed, sometimes without anesthetics. Sex changes were attempted. Females were sterilized, males were castrated. Thousands were murdered, and their organs, eyeballs, heads, and limbs were sent to Verschuer and the Rockefeller group at the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute.
After the war, Mengele was a famous target of Nazi-hunters pursuing him to South America. But his boss, Verschuer, was regarded in a different light: He was a high-level Rockefeller operative. In 1946, Verschuer wrote to the Bureau of Human Heredity in London, asking for help in continuing his "scientific research. '' In 1947, the Bureau of Human Heredity moved from London to Copenhagen, and Verschuer moved to Denmark to join the British group there. The new Danish building for this group was erected with Rockefeller money. The first International Congress in Human Genetics following World War II was held at this Danish institute in 1956. Dr. Kallmann helped save Verschuer by testifying at his denazification proceedings. Kallmann, a director of the American Eugenics Society, became an icon at the New York State Psychiatric Institute, which remains to this day a nest of the Eugenics Society. With Verschuer and other Nazi notables, Dr. Kallmann also created the American Society of Human Genetics, which organized the "Human Genome Project''--a current $3 billion physical multiculturalism effort.
1943: research in North America With the war on, the Rockefeller Foundation and the Canadian military joined their psychiatric forces. Canadian Army medical director Dr. George Brock Chisholm had been trained as a psychiatrist at the Tavistock Psychiatric Clinic in London, and Tavistock--the British Crown's central mind-bending agency-- was a major Rockefeller Foundation beneficiary. In 1943, the Rockefeller Foundation created the Allen Memorial Institute at McGill University in Montreal. Eugenics- oriented psychiatrist Donald Ewen Cameron, a Scottish immigrant to the United States, was placed in charge of the institute's psychiatry. Experiments in coercive interrogation and brainwashing would be conducted at Allen Institute under the auspices of the Canadian military, the Rockefeller Foundation, and the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency. Dr. Cameron's "terminal'' use of electric shock as a brain-burning torture, psychosurgery, and brainwashing with drugs and hypnosis would make the Canadian program the most famous apsect of the CIA's MK- Ultra.
Meanwhile, in Washington, D.C., a new odor, that of marijuana, could be detected inside St. Elizabeth's Hospital in Washington, D.C. (St. Elizabeth's is the mental hospital where presidential assailants or other federal cases are kept.) The superintendent, Scottish Rite chief psychiatrist Winfred Overholser, was in 1943 the chairman of the misnamed "truth drug'' committee for the Office of Strategic Services (OSS). The criminal underworld was systematically being brought into official but secret joint activities with the government, under the pretext of fighting fascism. Overholser's crew administered the hallucinogen mescaline to various test subjects. Then in the spring of 1943, they perfected the right mix of marijuana and tobacco to produce a "state of irresponsibility'' in the subject. The official OSS story is that New York mafia hitman August Del Gracio began smoking Overholser's "joints'' on May 27, 1943, in order to loosen his tongue. Federal agents were thus supposedly to learn the inside secrets of drug trafficking--but not to stop it. This was part of an ongoing federal program, which organized crime czar Meyer Lansky boasts (in his authorized biography) that he personally arranged. Mafia thugs were brought in to work in Naval Intelligence offices, and jointly with U.S. agents in U.S. ports and shipping, to more effectively intimidate our national enemies. Former CIA staff member John Marks writes in The Search for the Manchurian Candidate that Overholser's working group included counterintelligence agents inside the Manhattan Project atomic bomb project, and the FBI, which was under the direction of Dr. Overholser's Scottish Rite comrade, FBI director J. Edgar Hoover. The Overholser group gave marijuana to U.S. soldiers at Army bases throughout the country, supposedly to aid in the search for subversives. Later, during the 1950s and 1960s, the strategists of the MK- Ultra project would utilize the same channels of influence with U.S. security agencies to let them transform a generation of youth into dope users.
1944-48: after Nazism, the International Congress on Mental Health In 1944, with the concentration camps in full swing and Europe burning, Montagu Norman resigned from the Bank of England. He immediately began a new project, ironically related to his own repeated mental breakdowns and hospitalizations. Norman organized the British National Association for Mental Health. In its formative stages the group was based at Thorpe Lodge, Norman's London home, where he had met with Nazi Economics Minister Hjalmar Schacht to plan the Hitler regime's 1930s budgets. Montagu Norman's Bank of England assistant Otto Niemeyer was made treasurer of the National Association of Mental Health. Niemeyer's niece, Mary Appleby, became general secretary of the association. She previously worked in the German Section of the British Foreign Office. The president of Norman's association was to be Richard Austen ("RAB'') Butler. He had been deputy foreign minister to Lord Halifax and the spokesman in the British Parliament for the pro-Nazi policy. The chairman of the association was to be be Lord Halifax's son-in-law, the Earl of Feversham. The vice chairman was Lord Montagu Norman's wife, eugenics activist Priscilla Reyntiens Worsthorne Norman. Norman's British group would soon expand and to take over management of the world psychiatric profession.
When the war ended, the exposure and punishment of those responsible for the Nazi barbarities was a rather delicate matter. Dr. Donald Ewen Cameron interrupted his Canadian brain butchery to go help the British Crown's Tavistock psychological warfare unit evaluate the sanity of Nazi official Rudolph Hess. Cameron's unique insights into the Nazi mentality had made him a valued part of a secret wartime psychiatric committee in Washington to assess the trends in the Nazi leadership's thinking. Cameron now testified as an expert at the Nuremberg war crimes trials. His old OSS colleague Allen Dulles, later the CIA director, was reportedly pleased by Cameron's suggestion that each surviving German over the age of 12 should be given electroshock treatment to burn out remaining vestiges of Nazism. That part of the Nuremberg Code dealing with scientific research was drafted by Boston psychiatrist Leo Alexander; he soon afterward joined with Auschwitz experimental mastermind Otmar Verschuer in Franz Kallmann's American Society of Human Genetics.
In 1948, Montagu Norman's National Association for Mental Health gathered the world psychiatric and psychological leaders together at an International Congress on Mental Health at the United Kingdom's Ministry of Health in London. At this congress, a World Federation for Mental Health was formed, to run the planet's psychological services. Lady Norman, the hostess of the congress, was named to the executive board. Norman picked as president of the World Federation the chief of the British military's psychological warfare department, Tavistock Institute chief Brig. Gen. Dr. John Rawlings Rees.
In connection with the founding of the World Federation for Mental Health, a New York agent of Montagu Norman named Clarence G. Michalis was made chairman of the board of the Josiah Macy, Jr. Foundation. That foundation, in turn, would pay for much of what the World Federation and Tavistock were to do to the United States--supplying dope and otherwise subverting western ideals. The Macy Foundation's chief medical officer, Dr. Frank Fremont- Smith, would be the permanent co-director of the World Federation with J.R. Rees. The technical coordinator of the U.S. delegation to the 1948 congress, Nina Ridenour, later wrote in Mental Health in the United States: A Fifty Year History, that "the World Federation for Mental Health ... had been created upon the recommendation of the United Nations' World Health Organization and Unesco, because they needed a non-governmental [i.e., not accountable to any check of law or constitution-- EIR ed.] mental health organization with which they could cooperate.'' Ridenour alluded to the fact that the British psychological warfare executive had itself created the heart of the U.N. apparatus: "Having official consultive status with the United Nations and several of its specialized agencies, the World Federation for Mental Health is in a position to influence some of the U.N.'s decisions and some aspects of its program.
The two U.N. agencies with which the World Federation works most closely are the World Health Organization (WHO) and the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organzation (UNESCO). [Ridenour:] "The first director of WHO, and indeed quite literally its 'creator,' was a prominent Canadian psychiatrist, Brock Chisholm, M.D., formerly director general of the Canadian Army Medical Services. Since its inception, WHO has made significant contributions to world mental health through the reports of its various Expert Committees; through some of its other special reports, such as the notable monograph Mental Health and Maternal Care by [Tavistock's] John Bowlby, M.D.; and through the widespread activities of its Mental Health Division, of which the British psychiatrist Ronald C. Hargreaves was the first director." Unesco's partnership with Rees was guided by Unesco's founding secretary general, eugenics strategist Sir Julian Huxley, and by Unesco social sciences chief Dr. Otto Klineberg, a Tavistock-affiliated psychologist specializing in the supposedly racial characteristics of the American Negro.
The congress, which in effect founded the modern "mental health'' profession, brought together one of the most exotic collection of enemies of humanity in recent centuries. Its vice presidents included: Prof. Cyril Burt: Tavistock psychiatrist, eugenics activist, a leader of the "psychical research'' movement (seances, ESP, ghosts), who was notorious for fraudulent "twins'' research; Dr. Hugh Chrichton-Miller: founder of the Tavistock Clinic; vice president of the C.G. Jung Institute in Zurich; vice president, National Association for Mental Health; Dame Evelyn Fox: a longtime leader of the British eugenics movement (Lady Norman was a disciple of Dame Evelyn); Sir David Henderson: psychiatrist in London, Munich, and New York; author of Psychiatry and Race Betterment; Lord Thomas Jeeves Horder: president of the Eugenics Society of Great Britain; president of the Family Planning Association; president of the Anglo-Soviet Public Relations Association; former physician to King Edward VIII; Carl G. Jung: occultist; psychiatrist to Montagu Norman, Paul Mellon, and the Dulles family; representative of German psychiatry under the Nazis, co-editor of the Nazis' Journal for Psychotherapy; Dr. Winfred Overholser: representative of the Scottish Rite Masons; chairman of the American delegation to the International Congress on Mental Health; Alan Ker Stout: University of Sydney, Australia, philosophy professor, president of the New South Wales Film Society, officer of Unesco for films; Dr. Alfred Frank Tredgold: member of Britain's Ministry of Health Committee on Sterilization and a leading expert on mental defectives.
The congress was run by the host British "National Association,'' whose patron was the Duchess of Kent, widow of the Grand Master of Masons (1939-42) and mother of the Grand Master of Masons (1967 to the present), and whose vice presidents were eugenics and masonic officials. The general conference at the congress was on the subject of guilt, including the crucial plenary session on alleged German collective guilt for the crimes of Nazism. The first speaker was Margaret Mead, anthropologist, occultist, who would be president of the World Federation for Mental Health in 1956 and 1957, during the MK-Ultra crimes. The "Chairman for Discussion'' of this plenary was Scottish Rite strategist Winfred Overholser. In his opening remarks, Overholser said: "I understand that a vocal minority in the press does not agree with the wisdom of having such a meeting, but we feel there is great hope for the future if the principles of mental hygiene can be translated into terms of international action.''
1."The Rockefeller Foundation and German Biomedical Sciences, 1920-1940: Educational Philanthropy to International Science Policy'' by Paul Weindling in the book Science, Politics and the Public Good: Essays in Honour of Margaret Gowing, London, Macmillan Press, 1988.
1950s: MK-Ultra The outrages perpetrated by Ewen Cameron became the most notorious aspect of the postwar Anglo-American mind-control program. Cameron had trained at the Royal Mental Hospital in Glasgow, under eugenicist Sir David Henderson, and founded the Canadian branch of his friend John R. Rees's World Federation for Mental Health. In the various member countries and subdivisions, these channels of British intelligence operations are known as the national, provincial, or state Mental Health Associations. Cameron was also elected president of the Canadian, American, and world psychiatric associations. He became famous after the CIA was sued by some survivors of his work--because the CIA had financed the tortures.
Cameron would drug his victims to sleep for weeks on end, waking them daily only to administer violent electric shocks to the brain. He used the British Page-Russell electroconvulsive method, an initial one-second shock, then five to nine additional shocks, administered while the patient was in seizure. But he increased the normal voltage and the number of sequences from one to two or three times per day. Patients lost all or part of their memories, and some lost the ability to control their bodily functions and to speak. At least one patient was reduced almost to a vegetable; then Cameron had the coginitve centers of her brain surgically cut apart, while keeping her alive. Some subjects were deposited permanently in institutions for the hopelessly insane.
For the CIA, Cameron tested the South American poison called curare, which kills a victim while simulating natural heart failure. But Cameron claims to have used it only in non-lethal doses to further immobilize his subjects while they were kept in sensory deprivation tortures for as long as 65 days. Then they would be given lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) for "programmable'' hallucinations. When the subject was sufficiently devastated, Cameron and his assistant, a veteran of the British Royal Signals Corps, would begin "Psychic Driving'': Through a loudspeaker hidden under the pillow, or through unremovable earphones, they would play a tape over and over again to burn certain phrases into what was left of the victim's memory.
The CIA was found to have financed these horrors, as well as ghastly experiments in other locations, using a front called the Society for the Study of Human Ecology. (The society gave a grant for a study of the effects of circumcision on young Turkish boys, the grantees to be in Istanbul, studying five to seven year olds and their problems with their genitals. It is claimed that this was intended to give a cover to the CIA front as a real academic organization.)
The question of sponsorship But the authorship of this enterprise cannot reasonably be assigned to the CIA, per se. Even before we review other agencies' direct involvement, we must understand that the CIA chief during MK-Ultra, Allen Dulles, was thoroughly attached to British Empire geopolitical aims. Introduced to British spies by his uncle Robert Lansing, Woodrow Wilson's secretary of state, Dulles had had a strong personal identification since childhood with the British Secret Intelligence Service.
The Dulles family's upper class-status in America began when ancestor William Dulles arrived in South Carolina from India. With a fortune made in India by providing financial and security services for the British East India Company army, he bought a slave plantation which the family held through the American Civil War. The family's mental life was always that of the British Empire and its American colonial subordinates. Allen Dulles's main corporate activity was as a director of the J. Henry Schroder banking company in London, a prime instrument in Montagu Norman's nazification of Germany. As partners in the Sullivan and Cromwell firm, Allen Dulles and his brother John Foster Dulles represented the Rockefeller-Harriman- Warburg combination, I.G. Farben, and virtully every other Nazi corporate organization that danced on London's marionette strings.
It was disclosed that for MK-Ultra, particularly for the experimental use and distribution of LSD, the CIA operated through another front, the Josiah Macy, Jr. Foundation. But the geometry of the "front'' really worked the other way around. The Macy Foundation represented the British psychological warfare executive, as extended into U.S. and related institutions. In the midst of launching MK-Ultra, during 1954-55, the Macy Foundation's medical director Frank Fremont-Smith was president of British General Rees's World Federation of Mental Health. Under Rees as the director, the two together "made a journey to a number of countries in Asia and Africa to establish contacts and seek ways in which the organziation may extend its activities in those regions.''
Through official military and intelligence conferences over which it presided, and through various informal and secret operations, the Macy Foundation directed the spread of LSD by U. S. agencies during the 1950s. The Macy Foundation's chief LSD executive, Harold Abramson, was a psychiatric researcher at Columbia University and at the eugenics center in Cold Spring Harbor, Long Island, New York. It was Abramson who first "turned on'' Frank Fremont-Smith. Abramson also gave LSD for the first time to British anthropologist Gregory Bateson, sometime husband of Margaret Mead. Then in 1959, Bateson gave LSD to Beat poet Alan Ginsburg at Stanford University, under controlled experimental conditions. Following this, Dr. Leo Hollister at Stanford gave LSD to mental patient turned author Ken Kesey and others, and thus it was said to have spread "out of the CIA's realm.''
Masonic `charity' Other parts of the U.S. government participated in the project exposed as MK-Ultra. The Army Chemical Center paid for LSD and related drug brainwashing experiments by Dr. Paul Hoch. Along with Nazi eugenics leader Franz Kallmann, Hoch co-directed the research at Columbia University's New York State Psychiatric Institute. Dr. Hoch was a member of the American Eugenics Society, in Kallmann's eugenics cell at the institute. Hoch was simultaneously appointed State Mental Hygiene Commissioner by New York Gov. Averell Harriman, and was reappointed by the next governor, Nelson Rockefeller. Dr. Hoch's forced injections of a mescaline derivative brought about the 1953 death of New York tennis player Harold Blauer. Hoch's colleague Dr. James Cattell later told investigators, "We didn't know whether it was dog piss or what it was we were giving him.'' When Hoch died, British brain butcher Ewen Cameron directed his funeral.
Dr. Hoch, a Scottish Rite masonic strategist, worked with Dr. Kallman under the direction of Scottish Rite Freemasonry's Field Representative of Research on Dementia Praecox, Dr. Nolan D.C. Lewis, the superintendent of the New York State Psychiatric Institute. As the Ku Klux Klan has been the defining project for the Scottish Rite's Southern Jurisdiction, the Rite's Northern Jurisdiction left its official mark on the world through MK- Ultra--its most important "charity.'' Much of the psychiatric dirty work, though, has been done inside the Rite's KKK-spawning Southern Jurisdiction, which includes all southern states and everything west of the Mississippi River. Robert Hanna Felix, 33rd degree mason, was a director of the Scottish Rite's psychiatric research. He ran a spectacularly lawless brainwashing establishment.
The exposure of the MK-Ultra scandal revealed that the CIA had funded one Dr. Harris Isbell to carry out barbarous experiments using slave subjects, nearly all of them black drug addicts, at the Addiction Research Center in Lexington, Kentucky. Isbell was the director of the center from the 1940s until 1963. His boss was masonic master psychiatrist Felix, who founded the National Institute of Mental Health and was NIMH director from 1949 to 1964. The Lexington facility had been Dr. Felix's personal project since he had been its clinical director in the 1930s, and he put it under the jurisdiction of the NIMH. The Felix-Isbell slave experiments involved LSD and a wide variety of other hallucinogens and exotic poisons. In one case, seven prisoners were kept hallucinating on LSD for 77 consecutive days. The torture at Lexington followed the pattern developed by Cameron in Montreal: Drug-induced sleep was interrupted by electroconvulsive shock. Cooperative subjects were rewarded with shots of heroin or any other drug of their choice. And for mental health, the masonic administration encouraged the prisoners to participate in synthetic religious and political cults.
Felix's program was not simply to make humans into controllable beasts, but to decentralize the zombie- manufacturing. A 1993 report to the Scottish Rite Supreme Council by its current psychiatric research director, Steven Matthysse, explains: "Thirty years ago, a massive program began, which has continued unabated to this day: the deinstitutionalization of the mentally ill.... My predecessor as research director of the Schizophrenia Research Program, Dr. Robert H. Felix, 33 Degree, Gourgas medalist and the founding director of the National Institute of Mental Health, was one of the chief architects of this program. 'We are entering a new era,' he wrote, 'of community-centered, comprehensive psychiatric care.'... Dr. Felix predicted that, in 25 years, 'State mental hospitals as we know them would no longer exist.' He was right.... During the years from 1955 to 1992, the state mental hospital census went down by 82%.'' The strategists of MK-Ultra succeeded in moving the mentally ill out of costly mental hospitals, onto the streets, where they now consitute a large proportion of America's homeless. We shall now see what kind of "community-centered psychiatric care'' these strategists did in fact implement, as Britain's MK-Ultra poured drugs into the country and worked to fabricate the drug- sex youth culture.
Seymour Solomon Kety was both an executive of the Scottish Rite's psychiatry experiments, and a Scottish Rite- funded clinical experimenter. He was chief of NIMH clinical sciences from 1957 through 1967, and continued as the NIMH "senior scientist'' into the 1990s. A close associate of the Kallmann Nazi-eugenics cell at Columbia, Kety was a national director of the American Eugenics Society, under its 1980s name, the Society for the Study of Social Biology. Kety helped lead the masons' U.S. agency, the NIMH, beyond the Kentucky experiments, to the brink of Hell.
Manchuria in California? As Carol Greene has demonstrated in her 1992 book Morder aus der Retorte: Der Fall Charles Manson, (Test-Tube Murder: The Case of Charles Manson) Charles Manson, before he committed mass murder, was himself an NIMH "research subject.'' Manson was released from a California prison in March 1967. He was required by law to report regularly to a parole officer named Roger Smith, who was based at the Haight-Ashbury Medical Clinic in San Francisco. This was an NIMH project designed to observe and in effect supervise the first large-scale drug addiction of white teenagers, thousands of whom were the clinic's clients. Clinic director David E. Smith was also the publisher of the Journal of Psychedelic Drugs, and a leading national advocate for the legalized use of narcotics. Within the clinic arrangement, Charles Manson's parole officer was officially commissioned to scientifically investigate the effects that various kinds drugs had on addicts served by the NIMH clinic. David Smith also collaborated with another NIMH project: a behavioral study of children in communes. He was an expert on the breeding of violent anti-social characters in the mind-crushing environment of the hippie or cult commune.
Parole officer Roger Smith remained on Manson's case after he was no longer his parole officer, as an adviser and observer of the increasingly insane man. Charles Manson took up with a British-origin satanic killer cult called The Process--Church of the Final Judgment, a spin-off from Scientology. When he started with The Process is not clear, but there are some reports that it was in that summer of 1967. Its British founders had put the U.S. headquarters of the cult into the Haight-Ashbury section, two blocks from where Manson was living, and they recruited from among the "flower children'' for the jobs of drug-running, assassination, and race riots.
David Berkowitz, convicted in the New York "Son of Sam'' serial murders, was an initiate of The Process. Manson is most widely known for his communal Family, which carried out the satanic Tate-LaBianca murders. But here we note that Lynette "Squeaky'' Fromme, who became the head of the Family after Manson was arrested in October 1969, was herself imprisoned for the 1975 attempted assassination of U.S. President Gerald Ford. Another associate of the Manson Family, Sarah Jane Moore, was also imprisoned for a failed assassination attempt on President Ford. Had either been successful, Nelson Rockefeller would have become President.
There is a certain psychiatric agency, the American Family Foundation, which exists officially to guard the public from injurious cults. AFF is the mother organization for the so-called Cult Awareness Network (CAN). Dr. Louis Jolyon West is a director of AFF. An expert in brainwashing for the Air Force and the CIA, West first achieved fame from his MK-Ultra feat--he injected LSD-25 into an elephant and killed it. West researched "the psychology of dissociated states'' for the CIA, using LSD and hypnosis. His friend Aldous Huxley suggested to Dr. West during an MK-Ultra experiment that West hypnotize his subjects prior to administering LSD, in order to give them "post-hypnotic suggestions aimed at orienting the drug-induced experience in some desired direction.''
Dr. West was called upon by the government to examine Jack Ruby, who had killed Lee Harvey Oswald before Oswald could stand trial for his alleged role in the assassination of President John Kennedy. West declared Ruby to be in a "paranoid state manifested by delusions, visual and auditory hallucinations, and suicidal impulses.'' Ruby was convicted in 1964, but conveniently died in 1967 while awaiting what could have been a revealing re- trial.
Dr. West lived in Haight-Ashbury during the summer of 1967, to study the hippies. In the 1970s, West became famous again for his plans to create a Center for the Study and Reduction of Violence. Its staff was to investigate the genetics and biochemistry of their prisoners, including "hyperkinetic children,'' whose every motion would be electronically monitored by Orwellian guards. Though backed by Gov. Ronald Reagan, the plan was defeated.
Rabbi Maurice Davis is another "expert'' guarding America from cults as a director of the American Family Foundation. Davis worked at the NIMH Lexington Addiction Research Center as a chaplain, serving the slave victims of the MK-Ultra drug experiments as they were brought into cult participation. Rabbi Davis then moved to Indianapolis and sponsored the career of Rev. Jim Jones, whose followers were murdered with poisoned Kool-Aid in Guyana.
The bulk of the start-up financing for the American Family Foundation was channelled through a New York law firm running two funding satellites of the Josiah Macy, Jr. Foundation. The same law firm was the legal representative of The Process--Church of the Final Judgment.
The Process Church employs neo-Nazi themes, as do other British-origin movements such as the Satanists associated with California's Anton Lavey and Col. Michael Aquino. Charles Manson's swastika tatoo attests to this. Many of the psychotic potential presidential assassins have been "neo-Nazis.'' These include Ronald Reagan's deeply brainwashed assailant John Hinckley, and some of those who have threatened President Clinton.
To help turn up the possible source for this curious zombie pattern, we review the case of NIMH leader Seymour Kety--as of recent report the chairman of the Professional Advisory Section of the Scottish Rite Masons' Schizophrenia Research program. This is the Dr. Kety who, with his NIMH predecessor Dr. Felix, helped shape the programs that made Charles Manson a satanic beast. A Scottish Rite brochure reports on the meetings of the Rite's Grand Commander and Supreme Council with their psychiatrists to plan for the future. The brochure explains that Dr. Kety "can trace his interest in the genetics of schizophrenia to a report by Dr. Franz Kallmann at one of these meetings years ago. Dr. Kety's own genetic studies have become landmarks in the field, as the first convincing demonstration of an inherited factor.'' Not the first, perhaps, because Kallmann provided Adolf Hitler with "convincing'' pretexts to exterminate mental patients.
The official assassination program The ambiguous rationale for the MK-Ultra program was the search for the Manchurian Candidate: to study, emulate, and counterbalance communist programs which brainwash people who could be dangerous to our national security. These programs were secret, and masses of MK-Ultra records were destroyed. But some aspects of the program's direct testing have been divulged. CIA executive Morse Allen worked at creating killers under hypnosis on and around Feb. 19, 1954. The CIA planned early in 1954 to hypnotize a man they considered disposable, to get him to make an assassination attempt, be arrested for attempted murder, and be "thereby disposed of.''
A CIA hypnosis study was done by Alden Sears at the University of Minnesota and was moved by Sears to the University of Denver, Colorado. Sears worked to answer the question, "Could a hypnotist induce a totally separate personality? CIA counterintelligence chief James Jesus Angleton, a leader of the British intelligence faction in the American intelligence community, established three goals for the hypnosis program: 1) to induce hypnosis very rapidly in unwitting subjects; 2) to create durable amnesia; and 3) to implant durable and operationally useful post-hypnotic suggestion. A test of rapid hypnosis took place in July 1963. The counterintelligence staff in Washington, D.C. asked the CIA station in Mexico City to find a suitable candidate for a rapid induction experiment. The station proposed a low-level agent, whom the Soviets had apparently doubled. A counterintelligence man flew in from Washington and a hypnotic consultant arrived from California. The experiment was said to have misfired.
According to CIA hypnosis expert Milton Klein, creating a hypnotized "patsy'' is easier than making a totally controlled Manchurian Candidate. The patsy can be induced by hypnosis to do things which later show up as circumstantial evidence that will get him falsely blamed for a crime. Klein has claimed he can create a patsy in three months; a full-scale Manchurian Candidate takes six months.
The assassins' goals Back in 1961, at the height of MK-Ultra, the NIMH, led by masonic high priest Robert Felix, had created an elite group of biologists, behavioral psychologists, chemists, pharmacologists, neuropsychologists, and psychiatrists. This 150-member American College of Neuropsychopharmacology comprised many of most important MK-Ultra participants. An inner group of the college, the Study Group for the Effects of Psychotropic Drugs on Normal Humans, held a conference in 1967 to outline the desired course for the United States to the year 2000. This conference was reported on by two MK-Ultra leaders: Dr. Wayne O. Evans, director of the U.S. Army Military Stress Laboratory in Natick, Massachusetts; and Nathan Kline, a eugenics fanatic and research psychiatrist for Columbia University, who had set up voodoo-oriented psychological clinics in Haiti in conjunction with "Papa Doc'' Duvalier. The preface to the Evans-Kline report said the group "concluded that the present breadth of drug use may be almost trivial when we compare it to the possible numbers of chemical substances that will be available for the control of selective aspects of man's life in the year 2000.... "The American culture ... [is] moving toward a 'sensate society.'... A greater emphasis is being placed on sensory experience and less upon rational or work-oriented philosophies. Such a philosophical view, coupled with the means to separate sexual behavior from reproduction or disease, will undoubtedly enhance sexual freedom.... It seems ... obvious that the youth of today are no longer afraid of either drugs or sex."
Again, the philosophers and spokesmen for the avant-garde advocate the personal sensory experience as the raison d'etre of the coming generation. Finally, we are moving into an age in which meaningful work will be possible only for a minority: In such an age, chemical aphrodisiacs may be accepted as a commonplace means to occupy one's time. It will be interesting to see if the public morality of the next 30 years will change as much as it has in the last 30. "If we accept the position that human mood, motivation, and emotion are reflections of a neurochemical state of the brain, then drugs can provide a simple, rapid, expedient means to produce any desired neurochemical state that we wish. The sooner that we cease to confuse scientific and moral statements about drug use, the sooner we can rationally consider the types of neurochemical states that we wish to be able to provide for people.'' This is the historical thinking of the British strategists who want to destroy the U.S. presidency and the American republic. And this is the criminal apparatus with which they have equipped themselves to do it.
For further reading
- Samuel Harrison Baynard, Jr., History of the Supreme Council, 33 Degree, Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite of Freemasonry, Northern Jurisdiction of the United States of America, Vol. II, Boston, 1938, published by the Supreme Council.
- The Campaigner, April 1974: L. Marcus, "The Real CIA--The Rockefellers' Fascist Establishment,'' and M. Minnicino, "Low Intensity Operations: The Reesian Theory of War.''
- May 1974: Peter Cuskie, "The Shaping of the Anglo-American SS by War,'' and Richard Freeman, "Rockefeller's Fascist Labor Policies.'' Photocopies available from Ben Franklin Booksellers, Inc. (see www.LaRouchePub.com).
- Anton Chaitkin, "Franklin Witnesses Implicate FBI and U.S. Elites in Torture and Murder of Children,'' The New Federalist, Dec. 13, 1993.
- Anton Chaitkin, "Cairo Population Conference Repeats 1932 Nazi Planning Meeting,'' EIR, April 29, 1994.
- Franz J. Kallmann, The Genetics of Schizophrenia: A Study of Heredity and Reproduction in the Families of 1087 Schizophrenics, New York: 1938.
- Stefan Kuhl, The Nazi Connection: Eugenics, American Racism and German National Socialism, New York: Oxford University Press, 1993.
- Lyndon H. LaRouche, Jr. and Anton Chaitkin, Bring Down the Pike Statue Now: Why the KKK National Monument Must Fall, 1993, published by The New Federalist, P.O. Box 889, Leesburg, Va. 20178.
- Bernhard Schreiber, The Men Behind Hitler: A German Warning to the World, France: La Hay-Mureaux, ca. 1975), English edition supplied by H. and P. Tadeusz, 369 Edgewere Road, London W2. A copy of this book is held by Union College Library, Syracuse, N. Y.
- Jeffrey Steinberg, "30 Years of Menticide,'' EIR, Oct. 6, Oct. 20, and Nov. 3, 1989.
- Webster Tarpley and Anton Chaitkin, George Bush: The Unauthorized Biography, Washington, D.C. [available online]: EIR, 1992, consult expecially chapters 1-4.
- Carol White and Brian Lantz, "Satan's Helpers: Nazi Doctors in America,'' EIR, Oct. 6, 1989.